MySQL Joys

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1NF teaches us that we should not store repeating groups in fields. Given that we have a table satisfying 1NF containing values as such:

person_id transaction_id
1 1
2 1
1 2
1 3

It is simple to select all people involved in a transaction, or all transactions attributed to one person. But how would we find out, say, those people who had been involved in both transaction 1 and transaction 2? It wasn’t clear to me, until now:

SELECT `person_id`
  FROM (
    SELECT `person_id`
      FROM `table`
      WHERE `transaction_id` IN (1, 2)
  AS `people`
  GROUP BY `person_id`
  HAVING COUNT(`person_id`) = 2

The first SELECT returns all those people that have been in either of the two transactions. The second groups the people, and selects those that appear twice — in other words, those that were in both transactions. It looks so simple in hindsight!

This has interesting extensions — one could select people that have appeared in any number of an arbitrary list of transactions.

It is possible to avoid a second SELECT by using GROUP_CONCAT(), but that loses some of the functionality — as well as the elegance.

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